Independent effects of preload, afterload, and contractility on left ventricular torsion

Shortening of oblique left ventricular (LV) fibers results in torsion. A unique relationship between volume and torsion is therefore expected, and the effects of load and contractility on torsion should be predictable. However, volume-independent behavior of torsion has been observed, and the effects of load on this deformation remain controversial....

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