Left ventricular (LV) blood flow is an inherently complex time-varying 3-D phenomenon, where 2-D quantification often ignores the effect of out-of-plane motion. In this study, we describe high frame rate 4-D echocardiographic particle image velocimetry (echo-PIV) using a prototype matrix transesophageal transducer and a dynamic LV phantom for testing the accuracy of echo-PIV in the presence of complex flow patterns.... … 1a). The mitral and aortic tracts of the LV were connected to atrial and compliance chambers (transparent acrylic, built in-house), which were connected via a tube with an adjustable resistance valve (ViVitro Labs … ... We demonstrate that 4-D echo-PIV could be performed in just four heart cycles, which would require only a short breath-hold, providing promising results. However, methods for resolving high velocity gradients in regions of poor spatial resolution are required before clinical translation....Go to the Article
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