Acute and Chronic Swine Rete Arteriovenous Malformation Models: Hemodynamics and Vascular Remodeling
Liquid embolic agents are increasingly gaining importance in the embolization of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Currently, the most commonly used agent is N-butyl 2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA). Various NBCA mixtures, arterial hypotension, and Valsalva maneuver (increased positive end-expiratory pressure) during the injection of the acrylate have been used to address hemodynamic and architectural variations of an AVM; however, the precise in vivo polymerization, distribution, and kinetics of NBCA mixtures are unknown. We investigated the effect of different acrylate/Lipiodol mixtures and the addition of glacial acetic acid (GAA) on the penetration, dispersion, and injection force of NBCA.