Articles Related to Applications

Breitenstein-Attach, A., Steitz, M., Sun, X. et al. Ann Biomed Eng (2024).

With about 100,000 children in need of a new pulmonary valve each year worldwide, this study evaluates geometrical approaches in adult as well as pediatric size and condition. A commercially available pulse duplicator (ViVitro Labs Inc., Victoria/Canada) was used for in vitro assessment. For both the adult and the pediatric prostheses, valves with the closed geometry had significantly reduced tightness with more inhomogeneity and pinwheeling compared to the semi-closed valves.

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D. W. Gonring, Z. R. Zottola, A. A. Hirad, R. Lakony, M. S. Richards, G. Pitcher, M. C. Stoner, D. S. Mix, JVS-Vascular Science, 2024

We 3D-printed axisymmetric tissue-mimicking phantom hydrogel vessels from polyvinyl alcohol cryogel (PVA-c), a material that has previously been biologically validated against vascular tissue. Water was pumped through the phantom using a ViVitro SuperPump (Victoria, British Columbia, CA) cardiac simulator. We found that the percent reduction in average pressure normalized strain increased as the degree of graft oversizing increased.

Other Products Cited:  Pulsatile Flow Simulation  Stent and Stent/Graft  SuperPump

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J. Kiekenap MD, X. Sun MD, Y. Hao MD, M. Steitz M.Sc., A. Breitenstein-Attach M.Sc., J. Emeis B.A.Sc., F. Berger MD, PhD, B. Schmitt MD, PhD, Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions, Volume 103, Issue 4

Current heart valve implants entail major disadvantages in the treatment for younger patients or those with congenital heart defects. In vitro testing was performed in a Pulse Duplicator by the Canadian company ViVitro Labs Inc. equipped with flow and pressure sensors that is certified according to ISO-standard 5840 simulating conditions in the human heart. In vitro tests in a pulse duplicator showed compliance with regulatory requirements in terms of valve opening and insufficiency.

Other Products Cited:  Heart Valve Testing  Pulse Duplicator  Tissue Engineering

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S. F. Melo, A. Nondonfaz, A. Aqil, A. Pierrard, A. Hulin, C. Delierneux, B. Ditkowski, M. Gustin, M. Legrand, B. M. E. Tullemans, S. L. N. Brouns, A. Nchimi, R. Carrus, A. Dejosé, J. W. M. Heemskerk, M. J. E. Kuijpers, J. Ritter, U. Steinseifer, J. C. Clauser, C. Jérôme, P. Lancellotti, and C. Oury, Biomater. Sci., 2024

Valve replacement with prosthetic heart valves has shown to substantially improve survival in patients, and is currently considered the effective treatment for aortic valve disease. Manufactured tri-leaflet NIPU valves with an internal diameter of 19 mm were placed in the aortic valve position of a left heart model (pulse duplicator equipment, from ViVitro labs). Testing of the NIPU valves in a pulse duplicator showed good hydrodynamic performance.

Other Products Cited:  Analysis and Computational Modeling  Heart Valve Testing  HiCycle Durability Tester  Pulse Duplicator

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Karl, R., Leister, R., Stroh, L., Mereles, D., Eden, M., Neff, L., Simone, R.D., Romano, G., Kriegseis, J., Karck, M., Lichtenstern, C., Frey, N., Frohnapfel, B., Stroh, A., & Engelhardt, S.

Mitral regurgitation (MR) is one of the most common valvular heart conditions and caused by the retrograde flow of blood from the left ventricle (LV) into the left atrium (LA) through the mitral valve (MV). The frequency of the pump (ViVitro SuperPump, ViVitro Labs, Inc., Victoria, Canada) is adjusted to 80 bpm and the stroke volume of the pump is set to reach a left ventricular pressure of approximately 120 mmHg. The present work compares the measurement of regurgitation jet by ultrasound accomplished by three different physicians with three different systems.

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Meskin, M., Starkey, P.A., Kaspersen, A.E. et al. Sci Rep 14, 1864 (2024).

To understand the mechanisms and to assess the performance of cardiac devices and interventions, in vitro models can be used to replicate the complex physiological interplay between the pulmonary veins, left atrium, and left ventricle. It includes a pulsatile electromechanical pump (SuperPump AR Series, ViVitro Labs, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada) that provides the volume changes in the rigid LV chamber during the cardiac cycle. This study presents a new versatile left heart MCL that accurately captures the complex and interrelated sequences of left heart events and provides supplementary understanding of left heart fluid dynamics.

Other Products Cited:  Ex ViVo Simulation  Heart Valve Testing  Pulsatile Flow Simulation  Pulse Duplicator  SuperPump

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Spanjaards, M., Borowski, F., Supp, L. et al. Biomech Model Mechanobiol (2024).

A workflow to perform fast preoperative risk assessment of paravalvular leakage (PVL) after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is presented in this paper. Physiological pressure and flow conditions in the aortic root are generated using a commercial pulse duplicator system from ViVitro Labs Inc. (Victoria, Canada). This model can be used to calculate the regurgitant volume after TAVR at reduced cost.

Other Products Cited:  Analysis and Computational Modeling  Heart Valve Testing  Pulse Duplicator

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Karl, R., Romano, G., Marx, J. et al. Int J CARS (2023)

Minimally invasive mitral valve surgery (MIMVS) and transcatheter edge-to-edge repair (TEER) are complex procedures used to treat mitral valve (MV) pathologies, but with limited training opportunities available. The SuperPump, a pulsatile cardiac piston pump in combination with a viscoelastic impedance adapter (both ViVitro Labs, Inc., BC, Canada), is attached to the LV and produces preselected and customizable waveforms at various frequencies and amplitudes. Ex-vivo modelling of MV pathologies and repair procedures using the described simulator realistically replicated physiological in-vivo conditions.

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Masheane, L., du Preez, W., & Combrinck, J. The South African Journal of Industrial Engineering, 34(4), 104–115

To design cost-effective polyurethane heart valves, comprehend haemodynamic behaviour, expedite prototype development, and reduce the need for clinical testing for functional evaluation, the implementation of an experimental test digital twinning is essential. A ViVitro CPD (ViVitro Labs Inc., British Columbia, Canada) system, combined with the ViVitest data acquisition system, was used for pulse duplication at the Robert WM Frater Cardiovascular Research Centre at the University of the Free State in Bloemfontein, South Africa. The application of pulse duplicator digital twinning enabled a rapid evaluation of the valve’s functionality and a determination of the degree of its efficacy in specified environments at a minimal cost.

Other Products Cited:  Heart Valve Testing  Pulse Duplicator

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Zhang, X., Kizilski, S.B., Recco, D.P. et al. Cardiovasc Eng Tech 14, 827–839 (2023).

Pulmonary valve (PV) monocusp reconstruction in transannular patch (TAP) right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) repair for Tetralogy of Fallot has variable clinical outcomes across different surgical approaches. The ViVitro Pulse Duplicator System (ViVitro Labs Inc., Victoria, BC) was used to simulate infant RVOT physiological pulsatile flow. Balancing pressure gradient, regurgitation, and oversizing for growth, a set of leaflet design parameters have been selected for pre-clinical evaluation.

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Mirgolbabaee H, van de Velde L, Geelkerken RH, Versluis M, Groot Jebbink E, Reijnen MMPJ. Journal of Endovascular Therapy. 2023;0(0).

To identify potential hemodynamic predictors for limb thrombosis (LT) following endovascular aneurysm repair with the Anaconda endograft in a patient-specific phantom. A hydraulic piston-driven pump (SuperPump, ViVitro labs, Victoria) was used to set a suprarenal flow profile as inlet boundary condition. In conclusion, these in vitro data show that unfavorable hemodynamics are present in the limb that presented with LT, compared to the non-thrombosed side, with higher VC and longer RT.

Other Products Cited:  Customized Circulatory Loop  Endovascular Simulator  Flow Visualization  Pulsatile Flow Simulation  Stent and Stent/Graft  SuperPump

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Viktória Stanová, Régis Rieu, Lionel Thollon, Erwan Salaun, Josep Rodés-Cabau, Nancy Côté, Diego Mantovani, Philippe Pibarot

Aortic valve stenosis is the third most frequent cardiovascular disease in high-income countries after hypertension and coronary artery disease and is associated with increased risk of heart failure and mortality. Contraction of the left ventricle and left atrium were obtained using two ViVitro piston pumps (ViVitro Inc, Victoria, Canada). The results of this in vitro/in silico study suggest that newer generations of THVs have ∼30% lower leaflet mechanical stress than the early generations.

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Gavin A. D'Souza, Jean E. Rinaldi, Moustafa Meki, Annabelle Crusan, Eric Richardson, Meir Shinnar, Luke H. Herbertson, J Biomech Eng. Jan 2024, 146(1): 011004 (11 pages)

Mechanical circulatory support (MCS) device therapy is one of the primary treatment options for end-stage heart failure (HF), whereby a mechanical pump is integrated with the failing heart to maintain adequate tissue perfusion. In this study, the BAF solution is circulated through the MCL using a piston pump (SuperPump (AR Series), ViVitro Labs, Inc., Victoria, BC, Canada), which is fluid-coupled to a suspended silicone mock LV sac. An MCL can be an effective regulatory tool for simulating different patient disease states and evaluating the flow performance of MCS devices over their entire operating ranges in a well-controlled environment.

Other Products Cited:  Pulsatile Flow Simulation  Pulse Duplicator  VAD Testing

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Wu, X., Saaid, H., Voorneveld, J., et al. Cardiovasc Eng Tech (2023).

The development of reliable techniques and analysis tools is essential for the application of hemodynamic biomarkers in clinical practice. A commercial piston pump (Vivitro Labs Inc., BC, Canada) was used to impose a sinusoidal-like volume change of the external pressure chamber with a cardiac cycle period of 857 ms (70 bpm, systolic duration of 300 ms, stroke volume 50 ml). The results show that the pressure distribution along the (longitudinal) base-apex axis reverses at the onset and the termination of the LV filling and ejecting, respectively.

Other Products Cited:  Flow Visualization  Pulsatile Flow Simulation  SuperPump

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S Kaule, M Stiehm, S Siewert, A Öner, KP Schmitz, and F Borowksi. Current Directions in Biomedical Engineering, vol. 9, no. 1, 2023, pp. 503-506.

We investigated the comparability between steady-state and transient PVL measurements as an input parameter for simulations in virtual cohorts. For the pulsatile flow testing we used a commercial pulse duplicator system (ViVitro Labs, Inc., Victoria, BC, Canada). An increasing pressure on the closed Evolut PRO TAVR in different annuls models during the steady flow measurements resulted in an increased flow.

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Wang A, Wang Y, Liu W, Liu L, Zhou J. The International Journal of Artificial Organs. 2023;0(0)

We aimed to elucidate the effects of the micro-structure of the pyrolytic carbon for artificial heart valves on its hydrodynamic performance. A Vivitro PD 2010 pulse duplicator system was used. The parallel-groove pattern on leaflet surface affected the hemodynamic performance of the valve prostheses.

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Zhu Y, Park MH, Pandya PK, Stark CJ, Mullis DM, Walsh SK, Kim JY, Wu CA, Baccouche BM, Lee SH, Baraka AS, Joo H, Yajima S, Elde S, Woo YJ. Ann Cardiothorac Surg 2023;12(4):326-337

The goal was to preserve the native aortic valve (AV) leaflets in patients with aortic root aneurysm with or without aortic regurgitation (AR). The ex vivo system consists of a linear piston pump (ViVitro Superpump, ViVitro Labs, Victoria, BC, Canada) to generate a physiologic waveform in compliance with ISO 5840 standards. Similar to our previous ex vivo evaluation of the VSARR operation, we again confirmed that SG, compared with sinus containing graft, most closely recapitulated the native aortic root biomechanics.

Other Products Cited:  Endovascular Simulator  Ex ViVo Simulation  SuperPump

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Dylan Armfield, Shane Conway, Scott Cook, Mert Celikin, Philip Cardiff, University College Dublin, Boston Scientific Galway

Towards developing a simulation methodology for the design of next-generation Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR) devices, this numerical study investigates the impact of bioprosthetic valve stiffness and anisotropic behaviour on the fatigue of the nitinol stent frame during a single cardiac cycle. The simulation results were compared to in vitro testing of the device in a ViVitro pulse duplicator. The leaflet anisotropy can have a significant impact on how well the valve closes during the diastole phase, as well as whether the stent frame is symmetrically loaded, which may impact the overall fatigue life of the nitinol stent.

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Arianna Callera, Politecnico Milano Scuola di Ingegneria Industriale e Dell'Informazione

This work focuses on introducing more physiological conditions for testing of aortic valve prosthesis and comparing the changes in behavior of different valve substitutes in these conditions. The most used commercial test bench is the ViVitro Pulse Duplicator, composed by a pump, a model left heart, a flow measuring system and a data acquisition system. In this work we have shown that it is possible to exploit 3D printing to obtain an aortic phantom with physiological mechanical and geometrical characteristics and use it to perform pulsatile tests on aortic valve prosthesis.

Other Products Cited:  Heart Valve Testing  Pulse Duplicator

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Sarah E. Motta, Michael M. Peters, Christophe O. Chantre, Huibin Chang, Luca Cera, Qihan Liu, Elizabeth M. Cordoves, Emanuela S. Fioretta, Polina Zaytseva, Nikola Cesarovic, Maximilian Y. Emmert, Simon P. Hoerstrup, Kevin Kit Parker, Matter 6, 1860–1879

Current valve manufacturing technologies struggle to create valves that facilitate native tissue remodeling for permanent replacements. FibraValve samples were sutured onto 28 mm nitinol stents and positioned into custom made holders for mounting in a pulse duplicator (ViVitro Labs, Victoria, BC, Canada). Here, we show that FRJS can serve as a biofabrication method for implantable heart valves.

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