Articles Related to Pulsatile Flow Simulation

D. W. Gonring, Z. R. Zottola, A. A. Hirad, R. Lakony, M. S. Richards, G. Pitcher, M. C. Stoner, D. S. Mix, JVS-Vascular Science, 2024

We 3D-printed axisymmetric tissue-mimicking phantom hydrogel vessels from polyvinyl alcohol cryogel (PVA-c), a material that has previously been biologically validated against vascular tissue. Water was pumped through the phantom using a ViVitro SuperPump (Victoria, British Columbia, CA) cardiac simulator. We found that the percent reduction in average pressure normalized strain increased as the degree of graft oversizing increased.

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Meskin, M., Starkey, P.A., Kaspersen, A.E. et al. Sci Rep 14, 1864 (2024).

To understand the mechanisms and to assess the performance of cardiac devices and interventions, in vitro models can be used to replicate the complex physiological interplay between the pulmonary veins, left atrium, and left ventricle. It includes a pulsatile electromechanical pump (SuperPump AR Series, ViVitro Labs, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada) that provides the volume changes in the rigid LV chamber during the cardiac cycle. This study presents a new versatile left heart MCL that accurately captures the complex and interrelated sequences of left heart events and provides supplementary understanding of left heart fluid dynamics.

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Zhang, X., Kizilski, S.B., Recco, D.P. et al. Cardiovasc Eng Tech 14, 827–839 (2023).

Pulmonary valve (PV) monocusp reconstruction in transannular patch (TAP) right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) repair for Tetralogy of Fallot has variable clinical outcomes across different surgical approaches. The ViVitro Pulse Duplicator System (ViVitro Labs Inc., Victoria, BC) was used to simulate infant RVOT physiological pulsatile flow. Balancing pressure gradient, regurgitation, and oversizing for growth, a set of leaflet design parameters have been selected for pre-clinical evaluation.

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Mirgolbabaee H, van de Velde L, Geelkerken RH, Versluis M, Groot Jebbink E, Reijnen MMPJ. Journal of Endovascular Therapy. 2023;0(0).

To identify potential hemodynamic predictors for limb thrombosis (LT) following endovascular aneurysm repair with the Anaconda endograft in a patient-specific phantom. A hydraulic piston-driven pump (SuperPump, ViVitro labs, Victoria) was used to set a suprarenal flow profile as inlet boundary condition. In conclusion, these in vitro data show that unfavorable hemodynamics are present in the limb that presented with LT, compared to the non-thrombosed side, with higher VC and longer RT.

Other Products Cited:  Endovascular Simulator  Flow Visualization  Stent and Stent/Graft  SuperPump

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Gavin A. D'Souza, Jean E. Rinaldi, Moustafa Meki, Annabelle Crusan, Eric Richardson, Meir Shinnar, Luke H. Herbertson, J Biomech Eng. Jan 2024, 146(1): 011004 (11 pages)

Mechanical circulatory support (MCS) device therapy is one of the primary treatment options for end-stage heart failure (HF), whereby a mechanical pump is integrated with the failing heart to maintain adequate tissue perfusion. In this study, the BAF solution is circulated through the MCL using a piston pump (SuperPump (AR Series), ViVitro Labs, Inc., Victoria, BC, Canada), which is fluid-coupled to a suspended silicone mock LV sac. An MCL can be an effective regulatory tool for simulating different patient disease states and evaluating the flow performance of MCS devices over their entire operating ranges in a well-controlled environment.

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Wu, X., Saaid, H., Voorneveld, J., et al. Cardiovasc Eng Tech (2023).

The development of reliable techniques and analysis tools is essential for the application of hemodynamic biomarkers in clinical practice. A commercial piston pump (Vivitro Labs Inc., BC, Canada) was used to impose a sinusoidal-like volume change of the external pressure chamber with a cardiac cycle period of 857 ms (70 bpm, systolic duration of 300 ms, stroke volume 50 ml). The results show that the pressure distribution along the (longitudinal) base-apex axis reverses at the onset and the termination of the LV filling and ejecting, respectively.

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Mariam Abdi Noor, Leila Louise Benhassen, Alexander Emil Kaspersen, Marc Gjern Weiss, John Michael Hasenkam, Peter Johansen, J. of Cardiovasc. Trans. Res.

The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare a novel open aortic annuloplasty ring (the A-ring) with the Dacron ring. The ventricular chamber was coupled to a digitally controlled piston pump (SuperPump AR Series, ViVitro Labs, Victoria, Canada), delivering a pulsatile flow to simulate left ventricular ejection into the aortic root. Overall, the echographic data revealed that both interventions had a downsizing effect on the aortic root, while still maintaining the distensibility comparable to the native condition.

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Arian Aghilinejad, Heng Wei, Coskun Bilgi, Alberto Paredes, Alexander DiBartolomeo, Gregory Magee, Niema Pahlevan, J Biomech Eng. 1-31

Type B aortic dissection is a life-threatening medical emergency that can result in rupture of the aorta. The aortic simulator is a hydraulic model that has physical and dynamical properties similar to the human circulatory system. This hydraulic model consists of a piston-in-cylinder pump (ViVitro Labs Inc.) that generates a physiologically accurate pulsatile flow (using a programmable waveform generator ViVigen) and a pump head, including a silicone ventricle membrane, mitral valve, and aortic valve. Results demonstrate that the deep-learning model can accurately capture the dissection geometry from patients’ medical images.

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Shin Yajima, Yuanjia Zhu, Charles J. Stark, Robert J. Wilkerson, Matthew H. Park, Elde Stefan, Y. Joseph Woo, The American Association for Thoracic Surgery

This study aimed to biomechanically evaluate the force profiles on the anterior primary and secondary chordae after neochord repair for anterior valve prolapse with varied degrees of residual mitral regurgitation using an ex vivo heart simulator. Briefly, a 3D printer was used to rapidly develop a prototype of a modular left heart coupled to a pulsatile linear actuator (ViVitro Superpump; ViVitro Labs). In our ex vivo AVP model, moderate residual MR following neochord repair was significantly associated with increased forces for both anterior primary and secondary chordae compared with those of less-than-moderate residual MR.

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Leila Louise Benhassen, Jacob Hesselby Hedensted, Mona Sharghbin, Tommy Bechsgaard, Sten Lyager Nielsen, John Michael Hasenkam, Peter Johansen, European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, Volume 63, Issue 5, May 2023

For patients with isolated aortic regurgitation, a double sub- and supravalvular annuloplasty has been shown to reduce recurrent aortic regurgitation after aortic valve repair compared with a single subvalvular annuloplasty. The ventricular chamber was connected to an electromechanical piston pump system (Superpump AR series, ViVitro labs, Victoria, Canada). These two findings support the concept of a functional aortic annulus, where the two levels interact and affect the function and competence of the aortic valve.

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Maria Rocchi, Marcus Ingram, Piet Claus, Jan D'hooge, Bart Meyns, Libera Fresiello, Artif Organs. 2022; 00: 1– 13

The aim of this review is to provide an overview on Mock Circulatory Loops and to discuss the recent developments of 3D anatomical models for cardiovascular Medical Device testing. One example is the ViVitro Pulse Duplicator system. The simulator is provided with a flexible ventricular sac activated by a piston pump. The addition of 3D anatomical models enables more realistic connections of the Medical Device with the implantation site and enhances the testing capabilities of the Mock Circulatory Loop.

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Shannen B. Kizilski, Xiaoya Zhang, Nicholas E. Kneier, Martha D. Chaillo Lizarraga, Noah E. Schulz, Peter E. Hammer & David M. Hoganson, Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology (2022)

The aim of this study was to develop a robust in vitro system for quantifying flow conditions after various RVOT interventions. The MCL was developed around the ViVitro Pulse Duplicator System with the viscoelastic impedance adapter and ventricle chamber attachments. The 3D-printed RVOT anatomical model and in vitro pulmonary circulatory loop developed in this work provide platform for planning and evaluating surgical interventions in the pediatric population.

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Diya Wang, Boris Chayer, François Destrempes, Jonathan Porée, Marie-Hélène Roy Cardinal, François Tournoux, Guy Cloutier, IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control (Volume: 69, Issue: 12, December 2022) Page(s): 3284 - 3296

Assessment of myocardial contractility during a stress test is of high clinical value for the diagnosis and evaluation of cardiovascular diseases, especially coronary disease and heart failure. Both ends of this left-ventricular mimicking phantom (wall thickness of 15 mm) was then connected to polyvinyl chloride tubing by a pair of loosely attached steel clamps to a pulse duplicator (model #SD2001-1, ViVitro systems Inc., Victoria, BC, Canada). The complex, large, and rapid myocardial deformation during stress tests were also accurately imaged by the proposed strain estimator with close agreement with sonomicrometry.

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Luca Rosalia, Caglar Ozturk, Jaume Coll-Font, Yiling Fan, Yasufumi Nagata, Manisha Singh, Debkalpa Goswami, Adam Mauskapf, Shi Chen, Robert A. Eder, Efrat M. Goffer, Jo H. Kim, Salva Yurista, Benjamin P. Bonner, Anna N. Foster, Robert A. Levine, Elazer R. Edelman, Marcello Panagia, Jose L. Guerrero, Ellen T. Roche & Christopher T. Nguyen, Nature Biomedical Engineering volume 6, pages 1134–1147 (2022)

Advances in soft robotics have led to the development of high-fidelity simulators of pathophysiology for biomedical applications. An MCL was built using a pulsatile pump (SuperPump, ViVitro Labs), an anatomically accurate compliant silicone aortic vessel (E ≈ 1 MPa, United Biologics) connected to two adjustable compliance chambers (that is, ventricular, systemic), and a resistive valve. The models leverage haemodynamic mimicry and may facilitate the development of patient-specific applications. The models could also facilitate the clinical translation of treatments; in particular, a cohort of AS patients could be recapitulated in an in vivo porcine model, and new treatments could be evaluated preclinically.

Other Products Cited:  Endovascular Simulator  Ex ViVo Simulation  Flow Visualization  SuperPump  Tissue Engineering

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Lisa Carlson Hanse, Marcell J Tjørnild, Simon G Sørensen, Peter Johansen, Ignacio Lugones, Vibeke E Hjortdal, Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery, Volume 35, Issue 4, October 2022, ivac227

We investigated a new surgical technique of trileaflet semilunar valve reconstruction possessing the potential of remaining sufficient and allowing for some growth with the child. Pulsatile flow was produced by a Series piston pump (SuperPump AR; ViVitro Labs, Victoria, Canada), connected to the ventricular chamber. TSVR was achievable in vitro. Hydrodynamic pressure and echocardiographic evaluations demonstrated a sufficient and non-stenotic neo-valve.

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Emily N. Boice, David Berard, Jose M. Gonzalez, Sofia I. Hernandez Torres, Zechariah J. Knowlton, Guy Avital, Eric J. Snider, Bioengineering 2022, 9(7), 319

Central vascular access (CVA) may be critical for trauma care and stabilizing the casualty. However, it requires skilled personnel, often unavailable during remote medical situations and combat casualty care scenarios. Automated CVA medical devices have the potential to make life-saving therapeutics available in these resource-limited scenarios, but they must be properly designed. Unfortunately, currently available tissue phantoms are inadequate for this use, resulting in delayed product development. ...A SuperPump (ViVitro Labs, Victoria, BC, Canada) was used for generating pulsatile, cardiac mimicking arterial flow within the flow loop test platform (Figure 1D)... ...In conclusion, the tissue phantom model presented addresses a current testing gap for developing central vascular access medical devices. Troubleshooting is essential and having to rely on live, or even ex vivo, animal testing for evaluating a medical device with physiological mimicking fluid flow or pressure levels will slow device development...

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Paulo Yu, Vibhav Durgesh, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, Vol 138, October 1 2022

Aneurysms are abnormal expansion of weakened blood vessels which can be debilitating or fatal upon rupture. Previous studies have shown that hemodynamics play a role in aneurysm formation, growth and rupture. Therefore, the objective of this work is to investigate the impact of flow structures on vortex strength, impinging location, and wall shear stress for two aneurysm models. ...The inflow parameters used in this study, and , were controlled using a ViVitro Labs Inc. SuperPump system... ...The flow evolution results showed that impacted the vortex formation, growth, and dissipation processes for the studied aneurysm model...

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Salwa B. Anam, Brandon J. Kovarovic, Ram P. Ghosh, Matteo Bianchi, Ashraf Hamdan, Rami Haj-Ali & Danny Bluestein - Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology (2022)

Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is the most common congenital cardiac malformation, which had been treated off-label by transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) procedure for several years, until its recent approval by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Conformité Européenne (CE) to treat BAVs. ...Materials and Methods Patient-specific in silico models and 3D printed replicas of 3 BAV patients with different degrees of post-TAVR paravalvular leakage (PVL) were created. Patient-specific TAVR device deployment was modeled in silico and in vitro—following … ...PVL degree and locations were consistent with the clinical data. Cross-validation comparing the stent deformation and the flow parameters between the in silico and the in vitro models demonstrated good agreement....

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L. van de Velde, E. Groot Jebbink, B. A. Zambrano, M. Versluis, J. Tessarek & M. M. P. J. Reijnen: CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology (2022)

...To assess this flow diverting strategy for popliteal aneurysms, flow profiles and thrombus formation likelihood were investigated in popliteal aneurysm models... ...The model was placed in a circulating flow set-up with a blood-mimicking fluid (Fig. 3). At the inlet, a hydraulic piston pump (SuperPump, ViVitro labs, Victoria, Canada) was used to enforce time-varying forward flow...

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N Norris, K Lewis, C Settanni, T Becker, A Ducruet, Journal of NeuroInterventional Surgery 2021, 13 (Suppl 1)

...Physiologically-relevant patient flow parameters were tuned within the system using a Super Pump AR (ViVitro Labs)...This in-vitro aneurysm flow model utilized the latest in UV-cured 3D-printing techniques to provide a realistic simulation of neurovascular tortuosity and aneurysm device delivery...

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